Daech, Daesch al-Dawla al-Islamiya fi Iraq wa ash-Sham Islamic state, EI, EIIL. But kesako?
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New at 04.02.2015
What is it that Daech, this Islamic state, the caliphate, the country Sham or Dawla who both sows terror to his opponents and has a fascination for his followers?
The flag of the Islamic State
Lep roject conquest of the Islamic state
|ISIS goal of Creating a Caliphate across the Muslim world not only aim to form Muslim regions like Spain ( Jihadology )|
As I read in Arabic and I do not trust the machine translations offered by the Net, I look Francophone Lebanese media the East-to-day and Al-Manar. I also read an article about "d'Orient night," an Israeli site. It's an interesting way to know local opinion on international issues that we are concerned.
You could see YouTube videos terrifying artistically and professionally designed to attract new Jihadist caliphate in this resurrection, and perhaps also to warn the West that they can only lose the Jihad, the holy war of Islam who aim to conquer the whole non-Muslim world but also to re-educate the Muslims who have strayed from the strict application of the precepts of the Koran. In these videos it is often stated the need for revenge for the loss of the Ottoman Empire and therefore the will to recreate an empire, country Sham (see map below).
Terms for understanding the Islamic State
- Daech or Daesch : acronym for al-Dawla al-Islamiya fi Iraq wa ash-Sham
- al-Dawla al-Islamiya fi Iraq wa ash-Sham : Daech
- Dawla or Daoula : Daech
- EIIL Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Daech)
- EIL : Islamic state in the Levant (Daech)
- EI : Islamic state (Daech)
- ISIS : The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (Daesch)
- IS : Islamic State (Daech)
- Cham, Al-Sham, or land of Ham : mythical country of the Koran that covers the South of Turkey, Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Israel, the Gaza Strip and part of Egypt.
- Jihad or Jihad : holy war, the duty of every true Muslim
- Jihadist or jihadi : the fighter of the holy war
- Koufar or koufir : the non-Muslim
- Caliphate, or Khilafah : Territory led by a Muslim caliph who said Mohammed's successor. The last historical caliphate was the Ottoman Empire. The Muslims have never accepted their defeat and subsequent dismantling their empire. LC
A caliphate or Caliphate ( Arabic : خلافة ) is the territory recognizing the authority of a Caliph ( Arabic : خليفة ), successor of Muhammad , the prophet of Islam in the political exercise of power. This word also used to describe the political system itself and the period during which it is exercised (eg. "During the Caliphate of Haroun Al Rashid"). .. Many jihadist and extremist movements have political project for the restoration of the caliphate, which they share with the movements of political Islam from which al-Qaida who uses violence to achieve 9 .
Sunday, June 29, 2014, the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant was the first jihadist movements claim to have restored caliphate proclaiming his chief caliph Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi , under the name of Ibrahim, the jihadist movement calling all Muslims to make her allegiance 10 . Some jihadist groups around the world could agree to stand behind him. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Califat
- Dajjal : Antichrist. For Shiites, the Sunni Daech is the Antichrist. LC
Appearing in the Muslim tradition , he made mention of a figure eschatological called al-Dajjal (the Deceiver or Impostor) or al-Masih al-Daajjâl (False Messiah or Christ impostor) 28 corresponding to the Antichrist. It is a false messiah who appears at the end of time. Some common identify it with the " Beast "(Dabba) 29 , mentioned by the Qur'an 30 out of the earth among other signs. http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant%C3%A9christ#Dans_l .27islam
Appearing in the Muslim tradition , he made mention of a figure eschatological called al-Dajjal (the Misleading or Impostor ) or al-Masih al-Daajjâl (the False Messiah or Christ impostor ) 28 corresponding to the Antichrist. It is a false messiah who appears at the end of time. Some common identify it with the " Beast "( Dabba ) 29 , mentioned by the Qur'an 30 out of the earth among other signs.
- Mahdi : El Mahdi ( Arabic : mahdīy, مهدي , "guided person (by God), the one that shows the way") or Mountadhar Mahdi ( Arabic : المهدي المنتظر , "the expected guide") or the Caliphate Allah ("elected King God ") is the" savior "of Muslims expected that should appear at the end of time as announced by some hadiths . http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahdi
It is often referred to the Mahdi in sermons and Islamist propaganda. For Shiites Daech challenging the caliphate will be proclaimed after the arrival of the Mahdi. LC
- kharidjite : The kharidjisme is a puritanical practice of Islam , morality rigorous , condemning any luxury. Faith has value only if it is justified by works . http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kharidjisme The Kharijites are a tiny minority.
- Hisba : ubiquitous religious police, known in earlier stages Daech to suppress Iran Gasht e Ershad "Police Virtue" in Persian and Saudi Arabia Muttawa .
The hisba or Hisbah ( Arabic : حسبة [Hisba] calculation , verification) is a precept Islamic in full compliance with the laws of God. The doctrine is based on the Qur'anic principle Encourage what is good and forbid what is evil. It is also a controlling institution, intended to verify the proper application of the Sharia . Founded in the VII th century under the Caliph Omar , she is currently a vice squad . http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hisba
We see the Hisba plague the Islamic state, equipped with walkie-talkies and sticks, it flows everywhere, spying on everyone, critique everything that does not conform to Sharia, as trader who failed to cover the feet of his model or set of drawers in his shop. Indecent! The Hisba is also responsible to provide lashes for offenders. LC
Daech propaganda videos
The Islamic state has hired computer specialists, filmmakers, photographers, hackers and webmasters to conduct its cyber war utlisiant all Internet resources. After Charlie's attacks, 20,000 websites were hacked. To know more,
Most of the videos I had watched disappeared but there is no doubt that it will reappear in the same form or another.
Dawla Islamia * The truth about the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham 1 Video deleted, here's another
Dawla Islamia * The truth about the Islamic State of Iraq and Sham 1
VO English, French subtitles
* Film The Truth About the Iraq Islamic State Part 1 Return of the Caliphate
* The truth about the Iraq Islamic State Part 2 - Palestine / the Levant / Sham Added July 24, 2014
Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/profile.php?... (Only the brothers)
Soon after in sha Allah on financing, the hadiths that describe this time the conspiracy against the Islamic state, the military capacity of the Islamic state idni bi Allah (Dawla Islamiya) established recently for consequences alliances rival countries such as Iran and the United States ... The destruction between Shia led by the Sunni and Russia in the region, Imam Ahmad (may Allah have mercy on him) said, in the version of 'Al-Malik Ibn Abdus 'Attar, "He who has taken power by the sword, who became caliph and was named Amir al-Mou'minîn (Head of believers), it is forbidden to him who believes in Allah spend one night free considered the Imam, whether pious or wicked. "The Caliph Ibrahim, Allah preserve him, gathers all conditions of the Khilafah (Caliphate), which were cited by the people of knowledge. People of authority and nobility made her allegiance in Iraq and he succeeded Abu Omar al-Baghdadi, may Allah have mercy on him, his power has spread over large regions of the Iraq and Sham. And Earth. And no longer think that the Islamic state does not fight israel, And do not listen to Zionist sources know that Allah says in the Qur'an: Sura 49 verse 6. O you who believe! If a wicked person comes to you with a new, look carefully into it [fear] that you do not inadvertently harm people wore and you regret later that you did.
Glorification of arms, weapons veneration, hatred of Israel and invitation to califat.Dans these authors want to show videos immeasurable goodness and beauty of the Caliphate (Khilafah) but I see only ugliness, violence promises, hypocrisy and declaration of war. More than ugly men malice, ignorance and brutality as each other! The women are totally absent. LC.
L'Orient-le-day: Daech hit in Europe
The east day reports the analysis of three academics on Daech.
Founded in Iraq in 2007 under the name of Islamic State in Iraq (EII) by Abu Omar al-Baghdadi, following the death of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi who created Al Qaeda in Mesopotamia to fight the US invasion the country, the new group has enjoyed significant contribution in foreign fighters from across the Arab-Muslim world. However, its fighters were pushed back by the Iraqi army, US forces and the anti-Qaeda Sunni militias, sahwas. Abu Omar al-Baghdadi, who was killed in a US bombing in May 2010, is replaced by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Declining, the EII has entrenched in rural and desert areas of the provinces of Anbar and Nineveh, mainly Sunni. The Syrian conflict has given an impetus to jihadists Daech which has attracted jihadists from around the world a novel way to internationalize the Syrian revolt. In 2012 is created the Al-Nusra Front, a jihadist group composed mainly of Syrian fighters - including insurgents freed from prison by the Assad regime in 2011 -. And Iraqi whose authorship is attributed EII But two movements will come into opposition in spring 2013 when the emir of EIIL claiming control over Syrian group. Thus, al-Baghdadi sends his men in the liberated territories of northern Syria under the new banner of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (EIIL), known by the Arabic term "Daech" (al-Dawla al -islamiyya Iraq over wach Cham).
(See also: The Iraqi army undermined by endemic corruption) In Iraq, recent takeover of Mosul in Nineveh province, which borders Syria, marks the rise of Daech. This is actually the second largest city fell to the rebels completely after that, in January, of Fallujah. Led by fighters Daech, advanced explosive Sunni insurgents - a motley rebel movement (jihadists, former Baathists, tribes), frustrated by the discriminatory policy of the Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri al-Maliki - has raised fears of an implosion Iraq in its current borders. With its new conquests, Daech intends to implement its plans to establish an Islamic state somewhere between Syria and Iraq.
Discrimination and insurrection Dominique Thomas, a specialist in jihadist movements Ehess, "it is true that the Iraqi insurgency is the result of a policy of Maliki disputed by Sunni who consider that power is completely confiscated by the Shiites in Iraq. " "This insurgency, he said, includes many insurgent groups that do not have the same purpose as Daech, namely the establishment of an Islamic emirate in the Levant and Iraq, but they share a common goal which is the fall of this regime discriminating against the Sunni population. " Same story with Raphael Lefevre, a researcher at the Carnegie Center in Beirut, for whom "success is to have known Daech be pragmatic and to have surpassed, at least initially, the political and ideological conflicts that necessarily resulted from a Such heterogeneous movement. The question is until when this coalition can hold. " According to him, "what is certain is that the attempt to Nouri al-Maliki to caricature the Sunni rebellion as" jihadist "in order to discredit the political change requests will only strengthen this unlikely alliance and to perpetuate" .
Discredit the rebels Even reflection at Dominique Thomas, who believes that "the presence of Daech strengthens Syria Bashar seeking to do than just his fight against terrorism." "Maliki in Iraq, he added, will also seek to use the Daech negative image to symbolize his fight against terrorism. These regimes deny totally the political problems that led their people to lift. "These schemes do not control the jihadist insurgency that exceeds completely. "But they also know that no state in the world will support an insurgency dominated by a movement like Daech. They therefore have an incentive to leave Daech emancipation. This is not manipulation but rather political calculation as the Syrian state, master of the subject, has sought to do so for years in the region, "insists Thomas. In this context, Jean Pierre Filiu, professor at Sciences Po Paris and specialist in radical Islam, warns against "inaction of the international community in Syria that created the current situation where the strategic interests of al-Baghdadi - including jihadists do fight their former allies revolutionaries - and those of Bashar Assad - whose henchmen no longer fight the jihadists - feed off each other. " According to him, "the" butcher of Damascus "stands as a bulwark against Al Qaeda with the support of the Russians and an increasing resonance in Western public opinion. If, after tacitly abandoned the Syrians struggling against the regime, Westerners abandon them openly, the backlash will be terrible. This can only fuel the rhetoric of these groups and their denunciation of the hypocrisy of the West. " Combating Jihadism sending drones against al-Bagdhadi will not effectively says Filiu, adding that "only Bashar anti-coalition struggle effectively against Daech. And only a success of the Syrian revolution can protect us confront this danger goes up. "
Arsonists fighters In other words, the best way to combat Daech not only on the field but also ideologically, would be to fight against the authoritarian regimes that fuel the hateful rhetoric of this group. By marginalizing a large part of their population, suppressing a blind and ferocious manner any opposition to their power, Assad and Maliki are somehow the first support to radical movements that flourish in their country . Both schemes also attempt to discredit and disparage the Sunni rebellion against their power by imputing the savagery and atrocities of radical groups. By posing as the bulwark against terrorists, Assad and Maliki desperately trying to forge a legitimacy they have long since lost. Thus arsonists trying to become firefighters. Dominique Thomas also explained that "the violence of Daech is related to the Iraqi context first, then Syria. State violence of Iraqi and Syrian regimes against Sunni jihadis has grown symmetrically to respond with the same violence, reprisals and revenge type. This is the principle of eye for eye, tooth for tooth that is applied ". "is often presented as a homogeneous jihadi thought, while it is in reality a current buffeted by many internal controversies and fault lines ideological, "says his side Raphael Lefevre. He said that "the disagreements within the movement can sometimes have violent consequences, as evidenced by the fierce fighting since January Daech to oppose Syria Al-Nusra Front. While the energy of Al-Nusra Front has focused on the objective of overthrowing the regime of Bashar al-Assad's troops Daech have, in turn, granted mainly around the idea of creating an Islamic state spanning Iraq and Syria where their vision of Islamic law could reign supreme. " This vision is far from being tolerant as Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the emir of Daech, draws inspiration from the theories of Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, who had made the fight against Shiites and Sunnis "infidels" his priority in Iraq's post-Saddam Hussein. "The ultraviolentes methods Daech and its absolutist vision of the caliphate put the organization on the radical fringe of jihadist spectrum," he adds.
Daech vs Al-Qaeda? For Raphael Lefevre "recent territorial gains Daech in Iraq and Syria and the creation of a" caliphate "spanning the two countries are major elements that allow the group to introduce themselves now as before -guard of the jihadist movement and thus potentially replace Al Qaeda as an organization attracting foreign fighters waves attracted to jihadist thinking. " "Al-Baghdadi does indeed emerge as the leader of the global jihad and therefore supplanting bin Laden's successor, Ayman al-Zawahiri, in which he refused to swear allegiance "adds for his part Jean-Pierre Filiu. This is not the opinion of Dominique Thomas who believes that "Daech n ' not replaced Al-Qaeda. There is above all a contention between the two movements based on a conflict of authority. Daech refuses to submit to Al-Qaeda and its leader al-Zawahiri. This conflict of loyalties later spread to ideological considerations of the strategy with other groups fighting in Syria. The issue of takfir (curse) is a point of divergence between the two. Finally, Al-Qaeda remains a transnational movement while Daech is regional (Levant and Iraq). " Now, for Raphael Lefevre, "the differences between short-term goals Daech and Al-Qaeda should not mask a certain similarity, particularly linked to the long-term vision. Both sides believe that the West, with its values and its foreign policy in the Middle East, is the enemy of devout Muslims. It is not because Daech currently focuses on creating a caliphate and the fight against Iraqi Shiites that the group has no more global ambitions. "
(See also: Israel might be drawn into the jihadist spiral )
Threat to Europe Thus, "to consolidate his ouster of al-Zawahiri, al-Baghdadi has to organize a major attack in a Western country, including Al-Qaeda has been unable for a decade. Obama said last week before the West Point cadets that September 11 is no longer possible in the United States. He is probably right, especially as the US jihadists in Syria are only a handful. However, the danger of a European September 11 is always real, "warns Mr. Filiu. "The countdown has probably already started within Daech for preparing major attacks on the European continent . Assad can only welcome such a prospect, who has never ceased to threaten Europe with a bombing in Al-Qaeda. The international passivity has led to abandon the Syrian people facing fierce dictatorship and an "Islamic state" just as barbaric. But, unlike the Assad regime, inspired by the jihadist monster Baghdadi will not remain forever confined to the Middle East, "he concludes.
Daech and money
Daech funding is of several types, said Dominique Thomas. On the little information we have intersected, Daech financial capacity has increased tenfold thanks to the conquest of the territorial areas in Syria and conducted a few weeks in Iraq. "The control of border crossings with Turkey, control of some economic circuits in the Syrian Jazira, control of some oil wells and refineries represent an important organization for this war pension. Then, local private funds from supporters of this group are also an important part. We do not know which funds the state EIIL but foreign fighters who joined the group also brought with them some money to help finance it, "says Thomas. "We talk of a cash which would be around 2 billion, which would make it the richest terrorist organization in history, "said for his part Raphael Lefevre, adding that with the capture of Mosul, Daech robbed and stripped the central bank headquarters Iraqi army. "But Daech was also able to obtain the support of individuals who share its ideological agenda, particularly in the Gulf, where his attempt to establish a caliphate and his crusade against Iraqi Shiites certainly meet the expectations of individuals radicalized" estime- he said.
The rise of the jihadists, a boon to Damascus?
The fear aroused by jihadists in Syria and Iraq is a boon to the Syrian regime that seeks to regain legitimacy in the eyes of Westerners, defending the idea of a global war against "terrorism". The power of Bashar al Assad has never recognized the peaceful protests that began in Syria in March 2011 and was subsequently militarized degenerating into total war. He has always considered militants, rebels and jihadists in the same way, calling them all "terrorists". The offensive launched on June 9 by the jihadists in Iraq of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (Daech-EIIL) Damascus has allowed to consolidate this talk about the "struggle against terrorism", he says fighting since 2011. "After more than three years, the time has come: the West must recognize that it is deceived by encouraging the establishment in the area of all these people (jihadists), "told AFP Waddah Abed Rabbo, head of al-Watan daily close to the regime. "It is time to realize that we must build an international coalition to fight against terrorism, which spreads from Jordan to Turkey. It is no longer a Syrian problem, "he adds. "It must be understood that Syria is integrated into the coalition. It was she who did all the work. By fighting the terrorists at home, she helps both the Jordanians and Iraqis, "says Abed Rabbo.
The United States embarrassed the jihadist offensive has particularly highlighted the weakness of the Iraqi army created from scratch by the US after the 2003 invasion to Volker Perthes, director of the German Institute for Business and international security, "the regime is obviously happy with this situation," clearly an embarrassment to the US administration. "If it does not support the government in Baghdad, she will be accused of having left the country in the hands of jihadists. If it maintains with drones or experts, it will be seen as cooperating with the regime of Bashar al-Assad and Iran, "he added. "People in the United States begin to wonder if the American administration should not get close to Assad and establish a regional coalition against Daech. I do not think that will happen, but that's certainly what Assad wants, as this will weaken the rebellion, "adds the author of Syria under Bashar. In Syria, the conflict has become more complex over the past year with the rise of the jihadists, now in direct war with the rebels accuse of hegemonic will and abuse their former allies. Until then, "the regime was content to bomb the convoys of Daech episodically," says the director of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights, Rami Abdel Rahman. "But since the events in Iraq, the aviation conducts intensive diet and daily raids against jihadist strongholds. "
Plan in search of legitimacy "The regime presents itself as leading a war against Daech," he says, arguing that a "tacit agreement" binds to "Western countries to hit the jihadists." "They are trying to coordinate with the regime," he added. "The regime wants to regain its legitimacy. It is possible that the regime is gaining the support of some countries that wanted his fall, but he will never regain popular legitimacy, "says Abdel Rahman. This week, the United States and said to oppose any military intervention Syria in the Iraq crisis. They also revealed a project to help 500 million in favor of the Syrian rebellion "moderate", saying it could help fight the jihadists Daech in Syria but also in Iraq. The war, which began with peaceful protests before being put down in blood and militarize, has more than 162 000 dead and more than three years. Nachar Samir, a member of the coalition, "we must recognize that Assad managed to some extent to divert the attention of the people's revolution and portray as an extremist phenomenon. "
AL Manar Daesch is the Antichrist (Dajjal)
Shiite pro Body, pro Hezbollah terrorist, antisemitic conspiracy (They claim that American journalists have not been beheaded, it is a staging to justify their military offensive; the WTC towers are a Zionist conspiracy)
Opposes (apparently) to Daech which is Sunni
Since 1997, its majority shareholder is the Hezbollah , then considered a terrorist organization by the United States , resulting in controversy over its incitement to racial hatred and anti-Semitism in the broadcast chain programs. Al-Manar is both a terrestrial channel for Lebanon and a satellite channel with an international vocation as CNN or Al Jazeera . The language is Arabic but television news are also presented in French and English. Al-Manar is placed on the official list of terrorist organizations of the United States of America 1 . http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al-Manar
example of an anti-Semitic comment on Al Manar, origin France!
|14 - azer|
|Al Sirat al Mustaqeem | France||1:58||2014-09-17|
|Featured Shiite Hizbullah have the capacity to harm youtres occupying palestine and oppress the Muslims of this region, but do not. Why?|
Source: Website of the chain http://www.almanar.com.lb/french/main.php
Michael Stevens of the Royal Institute for search services, reported after his return from Iraq and Syria, "Revenues decreased to less than 1.5 million dollars a day, and I can say a sharper decline of oil production by Daesh relative to current production. Although production in Syria is stable, I think Daesh is in a bad way. "
The paper recalls that since the appearance of Daesh in Syria in 2012, Daesh plundered the oil and gas sites and sent the stolen oil, not to mention the kidnapping of the hostages, the imposition of taxes and extortion, and collecting 1 billion.
Daesh also appointed an oil minister to coordinate production and trade, and has an arsenal of more than 200 tanks stolen in Iraq, as well as pipelines present at the Turkish border.
This terrorist organization has put his hand on Omar oil field, the largest in Syria and neighboring fields of his stronghold in the east of Deir Ezzor, on the fields of Ajil of Hamrine in northern Iraq .
Indeed, says the Sunday Times, Daesh convinced the current employees of oil sites Malih to stay there, raising their wages or threatening them with death.
In addition, the head of Daesh Abubakr elBagdadi prompted the technicians of the Islamic world to come contribute to the constitution of the Islamic state he heads!
Western intelligence sources believe that some fanatics experts responded to the call. Last July, Daesh have pumped nearly 80,000 barrels per day of Iraqi and Syrian fields, but this activity has declined to half in recent weeks.
Activist ensures Daesh trying to employ some engineers and technicians by force in northern Syria to maintain the infrastructure under its control. The command of the terrorist group offers luxurious apartments, a wife, big salaries and seek more engineers.
While Daesh pays $ 600 for each fighter, and $ 900 for doctors who treat their soldiers. How then touch an engineer? And the British newspaper to continue the low oil production has a direct and imminent on the local people who live under the control of Daesh. Given that this organization has offered fuel at low prices to people but resources begin to dry. Which suggests a future popular protest.
However, this group is smart enough to realize his need of the local people. For this reason, it decreased taxes in some areas in the form of compensation. But it seems clear to the Iraqis and Syrians who were initially pleased with the establishment of the "Islamic state" that the state does not have the technical expertise to its operation, concluded the Sunday Times! Source: arabi- press
|The website team|
|Iran on Thursday expressed his doubts about the "seriousness and sincerity" of the international coalition that the United States want to build to fight against Daech (EI), an armed group takfirist raging in Iraq and Syria. "There are uncertainties about the so-called international coalition (against Daech) which was announced after the NATO summit," said the spokesman of the Foreign Ministry, Marzieh Afkham, quoted by the agency official Irna. "We can question his seriousness and sincerity to address the real causes of terrorism," she added, a few hours after the announcement of US President Barack Obama to his desire to "destroy" this group ultra-radical.|
She accused unnamed, countries of the coalition of "providing financial support" to takfirist in Iraq and Syria, referring to some Gulf countries.
He added: "Other countries hope political change in Iraq and Syria for their own interests."
|11-09-2014 - 1:59 p.m. Last Update 11-09-2014 - 1:59 p.m. | 968 v|
Most of the videos I had watched disappeared but there is no doubt that it will reappear in the same form or another.
http://www.nuitdorient.com Islamic state is a product of Wahabism
You Can not Understand the Islamic State without Knowing the history of Wahabism in Saudi Arabia By Alastair Cook, agent Mi16 05/09/14
The dramatic emergence of the Islamic State (EI) on the front of the Iraqi scene surprised many Western observers. Its violence and its attraction among young Sunnis to bewilder and horrify many. The ambivalence of Saudi Arabia to this phenomenon, all the more disturbing and inexplicable, raises the question of whether the Saudis understand that EI is also a threat for them.
Even today, leaders of the kingdom seem divided.
- Some rejoice that EI combats the "fire" of Iranian Shiites by the Sunnis, a new Sunni state takes shape in the heart of what they see as historically Sunni lands, and the strict adherence to ideology Salafist of IE is similar to that practiced by the Saudis. - Others, more pessimistic, keep in mind the revolt of the Ikhwan Wahhabis against Abd al-Aziz - specify that the Ikhwan in question has no connection with the eponymous Muslim Brotherhood (Ikhwan al Mouslimim), and that this article refers only to the so called Wahhabi militia, Nda - who almost mark the end of this movement and that of the Saudi dynasty to end 1920 - Still others worry about the radical doctrines of IE and begin to question some aspects of political discourse and the Saudis.
Duality Saudi internal strife and tensions around the Saudi EI does include only through the prism of the inherent duality and tenacious historical heart of the doctrine of the kingdom. - A dominant element of the Saudi identity is directly linked to Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab, founder of Wahabism and the implementation of its radical Puritan doctrine of exclusion by Ibn Saud, who was then a chieftain among others, the Bedouin by continuously the war in the pitiless desert Nejd.
(See www.nuitdorient.com/n231.htm ) - The second element of this amazing duality is undoubtedly due to the creation of a sovereign state by King Abd al-Aziz in the 1920s II repressed violence of Ikhwan, to establish diplomatic relations with Great Britain and the United States.
And it has institutionalized the initial momentum Wahabi, opportunely taking control tap petrodollars in the 1970s, to redirect excess of the Ikhwan to foreign countries, through a cultural revolution rather than violent revolution in the Arab world. This " cultural revolution "was not a reformist movement Benin. It was a revolution based on almost Jacobin hatred of Abd al-Wahab to putrescence and deviationist he saw around him, which explains his calls to purge Islam of all its heresies and idolatry.
Muslims Impostors The American writer and journalist Steven Coll explained how Abd al-Wahab, austere and dogmatic disciple of the scholar Ibn Taa'miya (14 th s), despised "the Egyptian and Ottoman nobility well as it should, pretentious smoker tobacco and hashish, which crossed Saudi drumming to pray to Mecca. " In the eyes of Abd al-Wahab, these people were not Muslims, but impostors. He did not wear his heart nor the Bedouin corner. They annoyed him by honoring the saints, erecting tombstones, by being "superstitious", because they were especially pray at graves or places they considered sacred. For Abd al-Wahab, this kind of behavior . was "bida" heresy As Taamiya before him, Abd al-Wahab thought the stay of the Prophet Muhammad in Medina corresponded to an ideal of Muslim society - the " best of all time "- that all Muslims should s' try to find (to pretty much, that's the definition of Salafism). Taa'miya had declared war on the Shiites, Sufis and the Greek philosophers. He also condemned the pilgrimages to the tomb of the prophet and the festivities related to the day of his birth, saying that they were imitating idolaters Christian rites. Abd al-Wahab had taken these initial theories, declaring that " anyone who does not comply to the letter this interpretation of Islam should fear for his property and for his life ". One of the fundamental principles of doctrine 'Abd al-Wahab is found in the "Takfir". This text allowed Abd al-Wahab and his followers to decide which of their co-religionists, deserved to be considered infidels if they encroached in any manner whatsoever on the absolute sovereignty of the king. Abd al-Wahab criticized Muslims who worshiped the dead, saints or angels. He felt that these beliefs averted their total submission of the necessary towards God, and Him alone. The Wahabi Islam therefore banned prayers to saints and the dead, pilgrimages to the tombs and mosques, religious festivals honoring saints, the celebration of the birth of the prophet Mohammed, and even the use of tombstones. Abd al-Wahab demanded that one should conform, physical and tangible way.
He thought that every Muslim was required to pledge allegiance to a single leader, a caliph, if any. " Those who do not comply with this interpretation must be killed, their wives and daughters raped, and their property confiscated ", he wrote. The list of apostates sentenced to death included Shiites, Sufis and Muslims of other denominations, Abd al-Wahab did not consider as true Muslims. From that point of view there is no difference between the Wahabism and the AR. The break took place only later, when the institutionalization of the doctrine of Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahab: " One leader, one power, one mosque ", the three pillars of Wahhabism in which one agrees to the king of Saudi Arabia, the absolute power of the state religion, and control over "the word" that is to say the mosque. It is this break - refusal of recognize these three pillars on which rests entirely Sunni power - making IE a serious threat to Saudi Arabia , although the organization also complies in all respects to Wahabism.
Small Course of History (1741-1818) The extremist positions of 'Abd al-Wahab eventually condemned to exile and, in 1741, after a long wandering, he found refuge with Ibn Saud and his tribe. In the innovative speech Abd al-Wahab Ibn Saud perceived a way to reject the Arab traditions and conventions, and to seize power. The clan of Ibn Saud, adorned the doctrine of Abd al-Wahab, could now indulge in what he had always done, that is to say looting the surrounding villages. Freed from the framework of the Arab tradition, he now claimed jihad. Ibn Saud and Abd al-Wahab had also reintroduced the concept of martyrdom in jihad, since they ensured immediate access to Paradise. In the early days, they seized some communities there and imposed their law. The people had a choice - more limited - between conversion to Wahhabism or death.
Since 1790, the Alliance controlled almost all of the Arabian peninsula and led repeated expeditions against Medina, Syria and Iraq. Their strategy - as EI today - was to enslave the peoples of the conquered territories , preferably by terror .
In 1801, they attacked the holy city of Karbala, Iraq, and indulged in the massacre of thousands of Shiite men, women and children. . Many Shiite shrines were destroyed, including that of Imam Hussein, the murdered son-small Prophet Mohammed Describing the situation, the British Lieutenant Francis Warden wrote: " They totally devastated Karbala, plundered the tomb of Hussein ( ...) and massacred more than five thousand people in a single day, with extraordinary cruelty ... " Osman ibn Bishr Najdi, the historian of the first Saudi state, detailed the circumstances of the massacre: " We seized Karbala, we have massacred the inhabitants. The survivors were enslaved, by the grace of Allah, Lord of the universe. We are proud of what we have achieved, and we say to the infidels they will suffer the same fate " In 1803, Abdul Aziz entered the holy city of Mecca, whose inhabitants, yielding to terror and panic, had surrendered and the same thing would happen in Medina. Supporters of Abd al-Wahab destroyed several historic monuments and all the tombs and shrines they contained. At the end of the fighting, centuries of Islamic architecture had been reduced to dust near the Grand Mosque. But in November of the same year, a Shiite assassinated the King Abdul Aziz in revenge for the massacre of Karbala. The son of the victim, Saud bin Abdul Aziz, succeeded him and continued his conquest of Arabia. However, the Ottoman leaders could no longer be content to see their Empire eroded gradually. In 1812, the Ottoman army composed of Egyptians said Medina, Jeddah and Mecca. In 1814, Saud ibn Abd al Aziz died of a high fever. His unfortunate son, Abdullah ibnSaoud, was forcibly taken to Istanbul, where he was executed in a particularly horrible way. A casual visitor explains seeing dragged through the streets of Istanbul for three days before being hanged and then decapitated. His head was then fired from a gun, while his heart was uprooted and planted on his body. In 1815, the Wahhabi forces were crushed by the Egyptians under the orders of the Ottomans during a decisive battle. Three years later, the Ottomans seized the Wahhabi capital, Dariya, they utterly destroyed. The first Saudi state had lived. The few survivors retreated into the wilderness, where they did more talking about them until 20 th century.
History will Repeat with EI It is easy to imagine how the creation of an Islamic state within the borders of modern Iraq may be perceived by those who know the history of this region. Wahabism the philosophy of 18 th century, far from dying in Nejd, resurfaced in the rubble of the Ottoman Empire, after the chaos of the 1 st World War. The Al Saud dynasty - in its contemporary form - was led by the laconic Abd al Aziz, skilled politician who was able to unite various Bedouin tribes and established the Saudi Ikhwan, in the minds of proselytes fighters Abd al-Wahab and Ibn Saud. The Ikhwan was a reincarnation of the old cruel and semi-independent movement, composed of fervent "moralists" armed Wahhabi, who managed to conquer Arabia in the early 18 th century. Again, the militants managed to seize Mecca, Medina and Jeddah between 1914 and 1926. But Abd al-Aziz soon realized that his interests were incompatible with the revolutionary Jacobinism of the Ikhwan. The rebels revolted, plunging the region into a civil war that lasted until the 1930s, when the king made them pass through weapons. For Abd al-Aziz, the simple truths of previous decades were no longer relevant . Oil had been discovered in the peninsula. Britain and the United States courted, but continued to support Sharif Husain, only legitimate sovereign. The Saudis needed to develop a new diplomatic approach. The Wahabism, revolutionary jihadist movement full of theological purity, was thus forced to become a movement socially, politically, theologically and religiously conservative, proof of allegiance to the Saudi royal family and absolute power of the king.
Fortune Oil Spreads Wahhabism The oil bonanza allowed the Saudis, in the words of French political scientist Gilles Kepel, to spread Wahhabism throughout the Muslim world, from "wahabiser 'Islam , and thereby reduce the multitude of currents . this religion to a single principle transcending national divisions Billions of dollars were - and continue to be - invested in this form of power by co-option . It is these are stunning - and enthusiasm of Saudis to align the interests of Sunni Islam with those of the United States, while spreading Wahabism in the educational, social and Islamic cultural spheres - that created the conditions for a dependence on the West to Saudi Arabia, addiction that lasted for the meeting between Abd al-Aziz and Roosevelt on a US warship bringing the president of the Yalta Conference. Westerners visiting the Kingdom, and have seen countless riches, an apparent modernity and a self-proclaimed influence on the whole world Muslim. They chose to believe that the Kingdom would succumb to the demands of the modern world, and that the management of Sunni Islam would also have a positive effect.
But the religious ideal of the Saudi Ikhwan has not extinguished in the 1930s retreated while maintaining its hold on some of the inner workings of the system, which explains the duality that we see today in the attitude of Saudis to EI. On one hand, the EI is deeply Wahabi . On the other, his ultraradicalisme not akin to that movement. One could see it as a backlash against the modern Wahabism. The EI is a "post-médinien" movement seeks to emulate the first two caliphs, rather than the Prophet Muhammad, and refuses to recognize the legitimacy of Saudi regime . While the Saudi monarchy is swelled in the oil era, the message of the Ikhwan gained ground, despite the King Faisal of the modernization campaign.
The "method Ikhwan" enjoyed - and still enjoys - the support of influential men and women, and sheiks. Somehow, Osama bin Laden was the perfect embodiment of this method. Today, the undermining of the IU against the Saudi kingdom is not perceived as a problem but as a return to the true origins Saudi Wahhabi project. By leaving the Saudis manage the region with them while they were engaged in their many projects - counter the socialist influences, Ba'athists, Nasserist, Soviet and Iranian - Westerners have revealed their vision Saudi Arabia - wealth, modernization and dominant position - but chose to ignore the Wahabi momentum . For to Western intelligence services, the most radical Islamist movements were best placed to flay the USSR in Afghanistan, and reverse the heads of state and country in the region that had more favor with the West.
Given all these factors,
why are we surprised to see the emergence of a revolutionary movement ultraviolent on the ruins of the expedition of Prince Bandar, mandated by the West and Saudi Arabia to bring aid to Syrian rebels in their fight against President Assad?
And why are we surprised - when you know a little Wahhabism - declare that the rebels "moderates" in Syria are a nonexistent commodity?
How is it has been thought that the radical Wahabism would generate a moderate movement?
Or that the doctrine " One leader, one power, one mosque: submit or prepare to die "could lead to moderation and tolerance?
Unless we simply have not thought about.